The Stages of Alzheimer’s Disease
The course of Alzheimer's disease is not the same in every person, but symptoms seem to develop over the same general stages. In most people with Alzheimer's, symptoms first appear in their mid-60s.
Scientists know that Alzheimer’s progresses on a spectrum with three stages—an early, preclinical stage with no symptoms; a middle stage of mild cognitive impairment (MCI); and a final stage of Alzheimer’s dementia. At this time, doctors cannot predict with any certainty which people with MCI will or will not develop Alzheimer’s.
Early signs and symptoms
The first symptoms of Alzheimer’s vary from person to person. Memory problems are typically one of the first signs of cognitive impairment related to Alzheimer's disease. For many, decline in non-memory aspects of cognition, such as word-finding, vision/spatial issues, and impaired reasoning or judgment, may signal the very early stages of Alzheimer’s disease.
Mild Alzheimer's disease
As the disease progresses, people experience greater memory loss and other cognitive difficulties. Problems can include:
- wandering and getting lost
- trouble handling money and paying bills
- repeating questions
- taking longer to complete normal daily tasks
- losing things or misplacing them in odd places
- personality and behavior changes
- Alzheimer's disease is often diagnosed at this stage.
In this stage, damage occurs in areas of the brain that control language, reasoning, sensory processing, and conscious thought. Symptoms may include:
- increased memory loss and confusion
- problems recognizing family and friends
- inability to learn new things
- difficulty carrying out multistep tasks such as getting dressed
- problems coping with new situations
- hallucinations, delusions, and paranoia
- impulsive behavior
People with severe Alzheimer's cannot communicate and are completely dependent on others for their care. Near the end, the person may be in bed most or all of the time as the body shuts down. Their symptoms often include:
- inability to communicate
- weight loss
- skin infections
- difficulty swallowing
- groaning, moaning, or grunting
- increased sleeping
- lack of control of bowel and bladder
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services
National Institute on Aging
What is Alzheimer’s/Dementia?